Power Generation Plant:
Electricity begins its journey from a power plant. Power can be generated in many different ways i.e., solar, natural gas, wind, biogas, hydroelectric dams, coal and nuclear, etc.
Once the power has been generated, it then needs to start moving towards its final destination THE CONSUMER.
Electric transmission systems act as tie points with interconnected transmission lines structured by all high-pressure cables and overhead lines transmitting high voltage power in bulk quantities from the power generating source to transmission substations. The large towers with wires you see on road trips are part of this transmission system.
The electricity leaves the power station, usually through overhead lines, and makes its way to a transmission substation. These are normally located not too far from the power station.
Transmission substations are an important part of electricity transmission. Usually located near power grid stations, they increase the voltage even further, thus allowing it to be transmitted to longer distances while retaining power. This is done with the help of step-up transformers which can increase the voltage. it helps the electricity to travel longer distances and reach its destination without losing too much current.
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the distribution system of an area. Once the electricity arrives at the distribution substation, the voltage is decreased to make sure it travels at safe levels to its final destination.
Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, depending on the size of the area served and the practices of the local utility. Besides changing the voltage, the job of the distribution substation is to isolate faults in either the transmission or distribution systems.
From Distribution substations, the electricity finally travels along overhead power lines or underground cable systems, to the consumer end. Transformers on these lines help to decrease the voltage again, resulting in electricity that is ready to use by end consumers in residential areas and non-domestic facilities too, like small factories or commercial buildings. Houses are provided with 230 V or 120 V if it’s a single-phase supply according to their country’s standards and on other hand, small factories or commercial buildings are fed with 400 V by a 3-phase supply.
Electricity is finally delivered to your home from the distribution transformers via a service wire connected to your home, called the ‘service drop. it will then be run through the energy meter so the power company can monitor how much electricity you use (and have to pay for).
From the energy meter, a wire is run into your household’s panelboard, which supplies electricity to various circuits, wiring, and outlets throughout your home.
That’s how journey of electricity travels from a power plant to consumer end that lights your surroundings.