Electric Motor Working and Its Applications

Electric Motor Working and Its Applications

Electric Motor Working and Its Applications


Electric motor, any of a class of devices that convert electrical energy to mechanical energy, usually by employing electromagnetic phenomena. Most electric motors develop their mechanical torque by the interaction of conductors carrying current in a direction at right angles to a magnetic field. 


The working principle of the electric motor mainly depends on the interaction of magnetic and electric field. The electric motor is primarily classified into two types. They are the AC motor and the DC motor. The AC motor takes alternating current as an input, whereas the DC motor takes direct current.


The various types of electric motor differ in how the conductors and the field are arranged and in the control that can be exercised over mechanical output torque, speed, and position. Most of the significant kinds are delineated below.


The AC motor converts the alternating current into mechanical power. It classifies into three types; they are the induction motor, synchronous motor, the linear motor. The detail explanation of the engine is expressed below.


Induction Motor:

The machine which never runs at synchronous speed is called the induction or asynchronous motor. This motor uses an electromagnetic induction phenomenon for transforming the electric power into mechanical power.

  • Squirrel Cage Rotor The motor which consists squirrel cage type rotor is known as a squirrel cage induction motor. The squirrel cage rotor decreases the humming sound and the magnetic locking of the rotor.
  • Phase Wound Rotor This rotor is also known as the slip ring rotor, and the motor using this type of rotor is known as the phase wound rotor. By the phases, the induction motor is classified into two types. They are the single-phase induction motor and the three-phase induction motor.
  • Single-phase induction motor The machine which changes1-phase AC electric power into mechanical power by using an electromagnetic induction phenomenon is known as a single-phase induction motor.
  • Three-phase Induction Motor The motor which converts 3-phase AC electric power into mechanical power, such type of engine is known as a three-phase induction motor.

Linear Motor:

The motor which produces the linear force instead of the rotational force is known as a linear motor. This motor has unrolled rotor and stator. Such type of engine is used on sliding doors and in actuators.

Synchronous Motor:

The machine that changes the alternating current into mechanical power at the desired frequency is known as the synchronous motor. In the synchronous motor, the speed of the engine is synchronized with the supply current frequency.

The synchronous speed is measured regarding the rotation of the magnetic field, and it depends on the frequency and the poles of the motor. The synchronous motor is classified into two types they are reluctance and the hysteresis motor.

  • Reluctance Motor The motor whose starting process is similar to an induction motor and which runs like the asynchronous motor is known as the reluctance motor.
  • Hysteresis Motor The hysteresis motor is the type of asynchronous motor which has the uniform air gap and does not have any DC excitation system. The torque in the motor is produced by the hysteresis and the eddy current of the motor.


A machine that converts the DC electrical power into mechanical power is known as DC motor. Its work depends on the basic principle that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, then a force exerted on it, and torque develops. The DC motor is classified into two types, i.e., the self-excited engine and separately excited.


Separately Excited Motor:

The motor in which the DC winding is excited by the separate DC source is known as the separately excited dc motor. With the help of the separate source, the armature winding of the motor is energized and produce flux.

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Self-Excited Motor:

By the connection of field winding, the Self-excited DC motor is further classified into three types. They are the series, shunt and compound wound DC motor.

  • Shunt Motor The motor in which field winding is placed parallel with the armature, such type -of the motor is known as shunt motor.
  • Series Motor In this motor, the field winding is connected in series with the armature of the motor.
  • Compound Wound Motor The DC motor, which has both the parallel and series connection of the field winding is known as the compound wound rotor. The compound wound motor is further categorized into short-shunt and long-shunt motor.
  • Short Shunt Motor If the shunt field winding is only parallel to an armature of the motor and not the series field, then it is known as the short shunt connection of the motor.
  • Long Shunt Motor If the shunt field winding is parallel to both the armature and the series field winding then the motor is known as the long shunt motor.

Difference between AC and DC motor

        AC Motors   DC Motors
Ac motors are powered from AC current. DC motors are powered from DC current.
In AC motors conversion of current is not required. In DC motors conversion of current is required like ac into dc current.
AC motors are used where power performance is sought for extended periods of time. DC motors are used where motor speed required to be controlled externally.
AC motors can be single-phase or three phases. All DC motors are single phase.
In AC motors Armatures do not rotate while magnetic field continuously rotates. In DC motors, the armature rotates while the magnetic field does rotate.
Repairing of DC motors is costly. Repairing of AC motors is not costly.
AC motor does not use brushes. DC motor uses brushes.
AC motors have a longer life span. DC motors have not longer life span.
The speed of AC motors is simply controlled by varying the frequency of the current. The speed of DC motors is controlled by varying the armature winding’s current.
AC motors require effective starting equipment like a capacitor to start operation. DC motors do not require any external help to start operation.

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